Download PDF Keesings Asia News Digest, June 2011

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Pen and Ink Drawing Techniques: Beginner's Tutorial Contemporary ink artists like David Beynon Pena and Neil McMillan have taken what their pen and ink predecessors have taught them, utilizing the practice as a skill honing endeavor on the part of Pena, with an emphasis on making preparatory ink sketches for his oil paintings. El confidente Spanish Edition? Stellar Heroes!

The Big Questions in Science and Religion. Godparenting: Nurturing the Next Generation? What goes into a pen and ink illustration?. A Tale of Two Kingdoms. How to Draw With Pen and Ink. The common refrain is that US military domination over these waters is necessary to maintain peace, uphold international law and protect freedom of navigation in the event that a hostile China disrupts or blocks regional and international trade. Although there is a mutually beneficial economic relationship between the two countries, should conflict develop US war plans involve contingencies for blockading China.

As Ralf Emmers explains:. According to South China Sea specialist Leszek Buszynski, if the disputes between China and its neighbours were simply about competing claims to energy resources and fisheries, a peaceful resolution that satisfied all of the parties might have been possible. However, in the context of strategic rivalry with the United States, the prospect of a more conciliatory China is now far less likely.

As in the South China Sea, nationalism and energy reserves are powerful factors in the disputes, as are wider strategic concerns. Thus, from the Chinese point of view, the appropriation of much of the maritime space across the Pacific from hostile or potentially hostile forces threatens its access to the Pacific.

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In his most recent tour of Asia in April , President Obama became the first sitting US president to declare the islands to be part of the defence alliance between Washington and Tokyo. Although the rise of China has added new impetus to calls for the United States to sustain its military engagement in the region, US regional hegemony has long been justified as necessary to keep the peace in Asia.

In reality, there are strategic reasons why US hegemony is incompatible with the emergence of a peaceful and stable Asia. By reasserting its military presence and strengthening its alliance relationships in Asia, the US aims to not only to constrain the rise of China but also thwart any accommodation with Beijing that could lead to the emergence of a regional grouping independent of US leadership. It is about declaring our strategic intent in the burgeoning Sino-US competition in the Asia-Pacific. The US and Australia then announced a major expansion of military cooperation including more military exercises, more visits by American ships and aircraft, greater US access to Australian defence facilities and the pre-positioning of combat equipment and supplies.

Crucially, it was also announced that Australia was extending its participation in the US global Space Surveillance Network by agreeing to station a powerful space surveillance sensor in Western Australia. However, the difference between rotational and non-rotational forces is in the eye of the beholder. Rotational forces deploy to overseas theatres from homeports in the United States for finite periods, while non-rotational forces are sustained in theatre continuously.

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Non-rotational forces can be forward based, as in Spain and Japan, where ships are permanently based overseas and their crews and their families reside in the host country. Forward stationed ships operate continuously from overseas ports but are manned by crews that deploy rotationally from the United States, as is the case with the LCS deployed to Singapore, with four ships in place by Forward operating ships, by contrast, operate continuously in forward theatres from multiple ports and are manned by civilian mariners and small detachments of military personnel who rotate on and off the ships.

While logistical, financial and political factors distinguish these options, in practice, there is little strategic difference between permanently rotating forces and a traditional base. As Admiral Samuel J. Underpinning these forces are critical platform investments and the research and development needed to ensure our continued dominance. Vine provides insight into the breathtaking scope of this strategy to which Australia has acquiesced:. In other words, Pentagon officials dream of nearly limitless flexibility, the ability to react with remarkable rapidity to developments anywhere on Earth, and thus, something approaching total military control over the planet.

The facility has played a major role in illegal US drone strike assassinations in Afghanistan and Iraq by tracking the precise geo-location of suspects to be targeted and passing on that intelligence to the US military. The joint Australian-American facilities have long been integral to any potential American operations in the Asia-Pacific and have therefore presented themselves as targets to an adversary of the US for quite some time. Gateway to the Indo-Pacific provides further details on how Australia might participate in a US-led blockade of China.

If the likelihood of a major power conflict materialising presently seems small, it remains a distinct possibility, and the reality is that Canberra appears to be contemplating and even preparing for such a scenario. Even in the absence of a secret chapter, the white paper was extremely aggressive regarding the rise of China. Unsurprisingly, both the white paper and the US troop deployment to Darwin evoked a furious response from China.

In Australia the Pivot to Asia has evoked a number of critical responses from leading national figures. He is the first current or former government leader to suggest Australia break its alliance with the United States. In a recently released book, Dangerous Allies , he urges Canberra to demand that the US MAGTF in Darwin leave within a year and the Pine Gap defence facility be closed down within four to five years amongst other measures designed to disentangle Australia from US strategic dependence.

Despite the critiques of a few prominent figures, the political, media and academic elite has overwhelmingly supported increased Australia-US ties and either ignored or denounced any challenge to the status quo. Obama speaking at a parliamentary dinner at Parliament House in Canberra. The Australian business community was notably absent. While most corporate heads justified their absence due to busy schedules, managing director of BC Iron, Mike Young, made explicit the reason why: Richardson bluntly accused the two businessmen of putting their commercial interests ahead of Australia as a whole.

Exports to China consist mostly of commodities and imports of cheaply manufactured consumer goods. Australian perceptions of China as a military threat.

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Lowy Institute Poll, Notwithstanding widespread ignorance about what is arguably the core of the Australia-US alliance, there is much room for interpretation in national surveys which ostensibly indicate strong support for it. Although Australian officials cite consistently high-levels of public support for the alliance, they invariably neglect to mention that the same surveys also frequently demonstrate that a majority of Australians desire a more independent foreign policy from the United States.

Despite its alliance obligations, 76 per cent of the public believe Australia should only support US military action if it is authorised by the UN and less than half 48 per cent believe Australia should join the US in a new war in the Middle East. While the majority 61 per cent of Australians are in favour of basing US forces in Australia, 92 only 38 per cent believe Australia should support US military action in Asia in a conflict, for example, between China and Japan.

Military capabilities aside, China has no conceivable interest in becoming embroiled in a military conflict with Australia.


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Lying far from its sea lines of communication, Australia is not strategically important to China. Despite this reality, 48 per cent of Australians in persisted in believing that China would likely become a military threat to Australia in the next 20 years. Defence Spending in Maritime Southeast Asia. Similarly unfounded fears exist about the rise of Indonesia with 54 per cent of Australians concerned that it will emerge as a military threat.

There is clearly a gap between how the Australian public and officialdom envisage the alliance.

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Yet security threats cannot constitute an adequate explanation for elite support of the alliance given that Australia has one of the most benign strategic environments in the world. He can be reached by email. Notes 1 The author gratefully acknowledges the many helpful comments and suggestions on draft versions of this article by Mark Selden.

Of course, all errors are my own.


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Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. Back to the Future? The decline of long-distance leadership? McCormack makes a similar point with respect to the normalisation of differences between Japan and South Korea and North and South Korea. Random House Australia, pp.